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Dhruv singhaniya
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What is Dam ? - Page 19 Empty Re: What is Dam ?

on Wed Jan 16, 2019 11:31 am
An outdated method of zoned earth dam construction utilized a hydraulic fill to produce a watertight core. Rolled-earth dams may also employ a watertight facing or core in the manner of a rock-fill dam. An interesting type of temporary earth dam occasionally used in high latitudes is the frozen-core dam, in which a coolant is circulated through pipes inside the dam to maintain a watertight region of permafrost within it.
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Dhruv singhaniya
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on Wed Jan 16, 2019 11:31 am
Tarbela Dam is a large dam on the Indus River in Pakistan. It is located about 50 km (31 mi) northwest of Islamabad, and a height of 485 ft (148 m) above the river bed and a reservoir size of 95 sq mi (250 km2) makes it the largest earth filled dam in the world.
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Dhruv singhaniya
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on Wed Jan 16, 2019 11:31 am
The principal element of the project is an embankment 9,000 feet (2,700 metres) long with a maximum height of 465 feet (142 metres). The total volume of earth and rock used for the project is approximately 200 million cubic yards (152.8 million cu. Meters) which makes it the largest man made structure in the world, except for the Great Chinese Wall which consumed somewhat more material.
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Dhruv singhaniya
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What is Dam ? - Page 19 Empty Re: What is Dam ?

on Wed Jan 16, 2019 11:35 am
Because earthen dams can be constructed from materials found on-site or nearby, they can be very cost-effective in regions where the cost of producing or bringing in concrete would be prohibitive.

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Dhruv singhaniya
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What is Dam ? - Page 19 Empty Re: What is Dam ?

on Wed Jan 16, 2019 11:36 am
International standards (including International Commission on Large Dams, ICOLD) define large dams as higher than 15 meters and major dams as over 150 meters in height.
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Dhruv singhaniya
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on Wed Jan 16, 2019 11:36 am
The tallest dam in the world is the 300-meter-high Nurek Dam in Tajikistan.

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Dhruv singhaniya
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on Wed Jan 16, 2019 11:36 am
A saddle dam is an auxiliary dam constructed to confine the reservoir created by a primary dam either to permit a higher water elevation and storage or to limit the extent of a reservoir for increased efficiency.
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Dhruv singhaniya
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on Wed Jan 16, 2019 11:36 am
An auxiliary dam is constructed in a low spot or saddle through which the reservoir would otherwise escape. On occasion, a reservoir is contained by a similar structure called a dike to prevent inundation of nearby land.
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Dhruv singhaniya
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on Wed Jan 16, 2019 11:36 am
Dikes are commonly used for reclamation of arable land from a shallow lake. This is similar to a levee, which is a wall or embankment built along a river or stream to protect adjacent land from flooding.
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Dhruv singhaniya
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on Wed Jan 16, 2019 11:37 am
A weir (also sometimes called an overflow dam) is a type of small overflow dam that is often used within a river channel to create an impoundment lake for water abstraction purposes and which can also be used for flow measurement or retardation.

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Dhruv singhaniya
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on Wed Jan 16, 2019 11:37 am
A check dam is a small dam designed to reduce flow velocity and control soil erosion. Conversely, a wing dam is a structure that only partly restricts a waterway, creating a faster channel that resists the accumulation of sediment.

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Dhruv singhaniya
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on Wed Jan 16, 2019 11:37 am
A dry dam also known as a flood retarding structure, is a dam designed to control flooding. It normally holds back no water and allows the channel to flow freely, except during periods of intense flow that would otherwise cause flooding downstream.

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Dhruv singhaniya
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on Wed Jan 16, 2019 11:37 am
A diversionary dam is a structure designed to divert all or a portion of the flow of a river from its natural course. The water may be redirected into a canal or tunnel for irrigation and/or hydroelectric power production.
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Dhruv singhaniya
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on Wed Jan 16, 2019 11:37 am
Underground dams are used to trap groundwater and store all or most of it below the surface for extended use in a localized area. In some cases they are also built to prevent saltwater from intruding into a freshwater aquifer. Underground dams are typically constructed in areas where water resources are minimal and need to be efficiently stored, such as in deserts and on islands like the Fukuzato Dam in Okinawa, Japan
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Dhruv singhaniya
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on Wed Jan 16, 2019 11:38 am
They are most common in northeastern Africa and the arid areas of Brazil while also being used in the southwestern United States, Mexico, India, Germany, Italy, Greece, France and Japan.
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Dhruv singhaniya
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on Wed Jan 16, 2019 11:38 am
There are two types of underground dams: a sub-surface and a sand-storage dam. A sub-surface dam is built across an aquifer or drainage route from an impervious layer (such as solid bedrock) up to just below the surface.
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Dhruv singhaniya
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on Wed Jan 16, 2019 11:38 am
. They can be constructed of a variety of materials to include bricks, stones, concrete, steel or PVC. Once built, the water stored behind the dam raises the water table and is then extracted with wells.
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Dhruv singhaniya
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What is Dam ? - Page 19 Empty Re: What is Dam ?

on Wed Jan 16, 2019 11:38 am
A sand-storage dam is a weir built in stages across a stream or wadi. It must be strong as floods will wash over its crest. Over time sand accumulates in layers behind the dam which helps store water and most importantly, prevent evaporation.
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Dhruv singhaniya
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What is Dam ? - Page 19 Empty Re: What is Dam ?

on Wed Jan 16, 2019 11:38 am
A tailings dam is typically an earth-fill embankment dam used to store tailings — which are produced during mining operations after separating the valuable fraction from the uneconomic fraction of an ore. Conventional water retention dams can serve this purpose but due to cost, a tailings dam is more viable.
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Dhruv singhaniya
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on Wed Jan 16, 2019 11:39 am
Unlike water retention dams, a tailings dam is raised in succession throughout the life of the particular mine. Typically, a base or starter dam is constructed and as it fills with a mixture of tailings and water, it is raised. Material used to raise the dam can include the tailings (depending on their size) along with dirt.
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Dhruv singhaniya
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on Wed Jan 16, 2019 11:39 am
There are three raised tailings dam designs, the upstream, downstream and centerline, named according to the movement of the crest during raising. The specific design used it dependent upon topography, geology, climate, the type of tailings and cost.
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Dhruv singhaniya
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on Wed Jan 16, 2019 11:39 am
An upstream tailings dam consists of trapezoidal embankments being constructed on top but toe to crest of another, moving the crest further upstream. This creates a relatively flat downstream side and a jagged upstream side which is supported by tailings slurry in the impoundment.
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Dhruv singhaniya
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What is Dam ? - Page 19 Empty Re: What is Dam ?

on Wed Jan 16, 2019 11:39 am
The downstream design refers to the successive raising of the embankment that positions the fill and crest further downstream. A centerlined dam has sequential embankment dams constructed directly on top of another while fill is placed on the downstream side for support and slurry supports the upstream side.
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Dhruv singhaniya
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What is Dam ? - Page 19 Empty Re: What is Dam ?

on Wed Jan 16, 2019 11:40 am
Because tailings dams often store toxic chemicals from the mining process, they have an impervious liner to prevent seepage. Water/slurry levels in the tailings pond must be managed for stability and environmental purposes as well.

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karan
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What is Dam ? - Page 19 Empty Re: What is Dam ?

on Wed Jan 16, 2019 12:03 pm
generation of hydroelectricity
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What is Dam ? - Page 19 Empty Re: What is Dam ?

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