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faizan khan
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Why is Indira Gandhi called the Iron Lady of India? - Page 7 Empty Re: Why is Indira Gandhi called the Iron Lady of India?

on Wed Jan 16, 2019 12:31 pm
Feroze, a fellow participant in the struggle for independence, was Parsi, while Indira was Hindu, and at the time mixed marriages were unusual. It was also out-of-the-norm not to have an arranged marriage. In fact, there was such a public outcry against the match that Mahatma Gandhi had to offer a public statement of support, which included the request: "I invite the writers of abusive letters to shed your wrath and bless the forthcoming marriage."
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faizan khan
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Why is Indira Gandhi called the Iron Lady of India? - Page 7 Empty Re: Why is Indira Gandhi called the Iron Lady of India?

on Wed Jan 16, 2019 12:31 pm
Indira and Feroze wed in 1942. Unfortunately, though the pair had two sons together, the marriage was not a great success. Feroze had extramarital liaisons, while much of Indira's time was spent with her father after he became India's prime minister in 1947. The marriage ended with Feroze's death in 1960.
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faizan khan
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Why is Indira Gandhi called the Iron Lady of India? - Page 7 Empty Re: Why is Indira Gandhi called the Iron Lady of India?

on Wed Jan 16, 2019 12:31 pm
In 1971, Indira faced a crisis when troops from West Pakistan went into Bengali East Pakistan to crush its independence movement. She spoke out against the horrific violence on March 31, but harsh treatment continued and millions of refugees began to stream into neighboring India.

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faizan khan
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Why is Indira Gandhi called the Iron Lady of India? - Page 7 Empty Re: Why is Indira Gandhi called the Iron Lady of India?

on Wed Jan 16, 2019 12:32 pm
War began when Pakistan's air force bombed Indian bases on December 3; Indira recognized the independence of Bangladesh (formerly East Pakistan) on December 6. On December 9, Nixon directed a U.S. fleet to head for Indian waters — but then Pakistan surrendered on December 16.

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faizan khan
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Why is Indira Gandhi called the Iron Lady of India? - Page 7 Empty Re: Why is Indira Gandhi called the Iron Lady of India?

on Wed Jan 16, 2019 12:32 pm
The war's conclusion was a triumph for India and Indira (and, of course, for Bangladesh). After the conflict had ended, Indira declared in an interview, "I am not a person to be pressured — by anybody or any nation."

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faizan khan
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Why is Indira Gandhi called the Iron Lady of India? - Page 7 Empty Re: Why is Indira Gandhi called the Iron Lady of India?

on Wed Jan 16, 2019 12:32 pm
In June 1975, Indira was found guilty of electoral malpractice. When rivals began advocating for her removal as prime minister, she opted to declare a state of emergency. Emergency rule would be a black moment for India's democracy, with opponents imprisoned and press freedoms limited. Perhaps most shockingly, millions of people were sterilized — some against their will — during this period.

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faizan khan
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Why is Indira Gandhi called the Iron Lady of India? - Page 7 Empty Re: Why is Indira Gandhi called the Iron Lady of India?

on Wed Jan 16, 2019 12:32 pm
At the time, population control was seen as necessary in order for India to prosper (Indira's favored son and confidant, Sanjay, became particularly focused on reducing the birth rate). During the Emergency, the government directed its energies toward sterilization, with a focus on the simpler procedure of vasectomies. To encourage men to undergo the operation, incentives such as cooking oil and cash were offered.

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faizan khan
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Why is Indira Gandhi called the Iron Lady of India? - Page 7 Empty Re: Why is Indira Gandhi called the Iron Lady of India?

on Wed Jan 16, 2019 12:32 pm
Then government workers began to be required to meet sterilization quotas to get paid. Reports came out that vasectomies had been performed on boys, and that men were being arrested, then sent to be sterilized. Some began sleeping in fields so as to avoid sterilization teams. According to a 1977 article in TIME magazine, between April 1976 and January 1977, 7.8 million were sterilized (the initial target had been 4.3 million).

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faizan khan
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Why is Indira Gandhi called the Iron Lady of India? - Page 7 Empty Re: Why is Indira Gandhi called the Iron Lady of India?

on Wed Jan 16, 2019 12:33 pm
At the beginning of 1977, Indira called for elections, ending her Emergency rule. She'd expected to win this vote, but the fear and worries brought on by the sterilization policy contributed to her defeat at the polls, and she was kicked out of office.

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faizan khan
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Why is Indira Gandhi called the Iron Lady of India? - Page 7 Empty Re: Why is Indira Gandhi called the Iron Lady of India?

on Wed Jan 16, 2019 12:33 pm
In 1982, a disagreement between Indira and daughter-in-law Maneka led to a showdown that would've been more fitting for an episode of Keeping Up With the Kardashians than for the leader of the world's largest democracy.

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faizan khan
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Why is Indira Gandhi called the Iron Lady of India? - Page 7 Empty Re: Why is Indira Gandhi called the Iron Lady of India?

on Wed Jan 16, 2019 12:33 pm
Practically from the moment Maneka wed Sanjay and entered Indira's household, the younger woman didn't fit in. After Sanjay died in 1980 (he was killed in a plane crash), tensions rose further. Things came to a head when Maneka defied Indira to attend a rally of Sanjay's former political allies (which didn't help the political interests of Rajiv, Sanjay's brother).

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Why is Indira Gandhi called the Iron Lady of India? - Page 7 Empty Re: Why is Indira Gandhi called the Iron Lady of India?

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