Go down
avatar
kavita123
Posts : 10734
Join date : 2019-01-07

What is Printing Press ? - Page 12 Empty Re: What is Printing Press ?

on Tue Jan 15, 2019 7:29 pm
Goldsmith and inventor Johannes Gutenberg was a political exile from Mainz, Germany, when he began experimenting with printing in Strasbourg, France, in 1440.
avatar
kavita123
Posts : 10734
Join date : 2019-01-07

What is Printing Press ? - Page 12 Empty Re: What is Printing Press ?

on Tue Jan 15, 2019 7:29 pm
He returned to Mainz several years later and by 1450, had a printing machine perfected and ready to use commercially.
avatar
kavita123
Posts : 10734
Join date : 2019-01-07

What is Printing Press ? - Page 12 Empty Re: What is Printing Press ?

on Tue Jan 15, 2019 7:29 pm
Integral to Gutenberg’s design was replacing wood with metal and printing blocks with each letter, creating the European version of moveable type.
avatar
kavita123
Posts : 10734
Join date : 2019-01-07

What is Printing Press ? - Page 12 Empty Re: What is Printing Press ?

on Tue Jan 15, 2019 7:29 pm
In order to make the type available in large quantities and to different stages of printing, Gutenberg applied the concept of replica-casting, which saw letters created in reverse in brass and then replicas made from these molds by pouring molten lead.
avatar
kavita123
Posts : 10734
Join date : 2019-01-07

What is Printing Press ? - Page 12 Empty Re: What is Printing Press ?

on Tue Jan 15, 2019 7:29 pm
Researchers have speculated that Gutenberg actually used a sand-casting system that uses carved sand to create the metal molds. The letters were fashioned to fit together uniformly to create level lines of letters and consistent columns on flat media.
avatar
kavita123
Posts : 10734
Join date : 2019-01-07

What is Printing Press ? - Page 12 Empty Re: What is Printing Press ?

on Tue Jan 15, 2019 7:30 pm
Gutenberg’s process would not have worked as seamlessly as it did if he had not made his own ink, devised to affix to metal rather than wood.
avatar
kavita123
Posts : 10734
Join date : 2019-01-07

What is Printing Press ? - Page 12 Empty Re: What is Printing Press ?

on Tue Jan 15, 2019 7:30 pm
Gutenberg was also able to perfect a method for flattening printing paper for use by using a winepress, traditionally used to press grapes for wine and olives for oil, retrofitted into his printing press design.
avatar
kavita123
Posts : 10734
Join date : 2019-01-07

What is Printing Press ? - Page 12 Empty Re: What is Printing Press ?

on Tue Jan 15, 2019 7:30 pm
Gutenberg borrowed money from Johannes Fust to fund his project and in 1452, Fust joined Gutenberg as a partner to create books. They set about printing calendars, pamphlets and other ephemera.
avatar
kavita123
Posts : 10734
Join date : 2019-01-07

What is Printing Press ? - Page 12 Empty Re: What is Printing Press ?

on Tue Jan 15, 2019 7:30 pm
In 1452, Gutenberg produced the one book to come out of his shop: a Bible. It’s estimated he printed 180 copies of the 1,300-paged Bible, as many as 60 of them on vellum.
avatar
kavita123
Posts : 10734
Join date : 2019-01-07

What is Printing Press ? - Page 12 Empty Re: What is Printing Press ?

on Tue Jan 15, 2019 7:30 pm
Each page of the Bible contained 42 lines of text in Gothic type, with double columns and featuring some letters in color.
avatar
kavita123
Posts : 10734
Join date : 2019-01-07

What is Printing Press ? - Page 12 Empty Re: What is Printing Press ?

on Tue Jan 15, 2019 7:30 pm
For the Bible, Gutenberg used 300 separate molded letter blocks and 50,000 sheets of paper.
avatar
kavita123
Posts : 10734
Join date : 2019-01-07

What is Printing Press ? - Page 12 Empty Re: What is Printing Press ?

on Tue Jan 15, 2019 7:31 pm
Many fragments of the books survive, with 21 complete copies, and four complete copies of the vellum version.
avatar
kavita123
Posts : 10734
Join date : 2019-01-07

What is Printing Press ? - Page 12 Empty Re: What is Printing Press ?

on Tue Jan 15, 2019 7:31 pm
In 1455, Fust foreclosed on Gutenberg and, in an ensuing lawsuit, all of Gutenberg’s equipment went to Fust and Peter Schoffer of Gernsheim, Germany, a former calligrapher.
avatar
kavita123
Posts : 10734
Join date : 2019-01-07

What is Printing Press ? - Page 12 Empty Re: What is Printing Press ?

on Tue Jan 15, 2019 7:31 pm
Gutenberg is believed to have continued printing, probably producing an edition of the Catholicon, a Latin dictionary, in 1460. But Gutenberg ceased any efforts at printing after 1460, possibly due to impaired vision. He died in 1468
avatar
kavita123
Posts : 10734
Join date : 2019-01-07

What is Printing Press ? - Page 12 Empty Re: What is Printing Press ?

on Tue Jan 15, 2019 7:31 pm
Schoffer made use of Gutenberg’s press as soon as it was acquired, and he is considered to be a technically better printer and typographer than Gutenberg was. Within two years of seizing Gutenberg’s press, he produced an acclaimed version of The Book of Psalms that featured a three-color title page and varying types within the book.
avatar
kavita123
Posts : 10734
Join date : 2019-01-07

What is Printing Press ? - Page 12 Empty Re: What is Printing Press ?

on Tue Jan 15, 2019 7:31 pm
One notable detail about this edition is the inclusion of a colophon for the very first time in history. A colophon is the section of a book that details publication information. Ten copies of this edition of The Book of Psalms are known to still exist.
avatar
kavita123
Posts : 10734
Join date : 2019-01-07

What is Printing Press ? - Page 12 Empty Re: What is Printing Press ?

on Tue Jan 15, 2019 7:32 pm
The spread of printing as a trade benefited from workers in Germany who had helped Gutenberg in his early printing experiments, who then went on to become printers, and who taught the trade to others.
avatar
kavita123
Posts : 10734
Join date : 2019-01-07

What is Printing Press ? - Page 12 Empty Re: What is Printing Press ?

on Tue Jan 15, 2019 7:32 pm
After Germany, it was Italy who was the next recipient of Gutenberg’s invention, with the printing press brought to the country in 1465. By 1470, Italian printers began to make a successful trade in printed matter.
avatar
kavita123
Posts : 10734
Join date : 2019-01-07

What is Printing Press ? - Page 12 Empty Re: What is Printing Press ?

on Tue Jan 15, 2019 7:32 pm
German printers were invited to set up presses at the Sorbonne in Paris in 1470, with the librarian there choosing books to be printed, mostly textbooks, for the students. By 1476, other German printers had moved to Paris and set-up private companies.
avatar
kavita123
Posts : 10734
Join date : 2019-01-07

What is Printing Press ? - Page 12 Empty Re: What is Printing Press ?

on Tue Jan 15, 2019 7:32 pm
Spain welcomed German printers in 1473, in Valencia, spreading to Barcelona in 1475. In 1495, Portugal invited printers to Lisbon.
avatar
kavita123
Posts : 10734
Join date : 2019-01-07

What is Printing Press ? - Page 12 Empty Re: What is Printing Press ?

on Tue Jan 15, 2019 7:32 pm
Gutenberg’s invention was brought to England in 1476 by William Caxton, an Englishman who had lived in Bruges, Belgium, for years. Caxton went to Cologne to learn to print in 1471 in order to set up a press in Bruges and publish his own translations of various works.
avatar
kavita123
Posts : 10734
Join date : 2019-01-07

What is Printing Press ? - Page 12 Empty Re: What is Printing Press ?

on Tue Jan 15, 2019 7:33 pm
After returning to England, he set up a press in Westminster Abbey, where he worked as a printer for the monarchy until his death in 1491
avatar
kavita123
Posts : 10734
Join date : 2019-01-07

What is Printing Press ? - Page 12 Empty Re: What is Printing Press ?

on Tue Jan 15, 2019 7:33 pm
The worldwide spread of the printing press meant greater distribution of ideas that threatened the ironclad power structures throughout Europe.
avatar
kavita123
Posts : 10734
Join date : 2019-01-07

What is Printing Press ? - Page 12 Empty Re: What is Printing Press ?

on Tue Jan 15, 2019 7:33 pm
In 1501, Pope Alexander VI promised excommunication for anyone who printed manuscripts without the church’s approval. Twenty years later, books from John Calvin and Martin Luther spread, bringing into reality what Alexander had feared.
avatar
kavita123
Posts : 10734
Join date : 2019-01-07

What is Printing Press ? - Page 12 Empty Re: What is Printing Press ?

on Tue Jan 15, 2019 7:33 pm
Furthering that threat, Copernicus published his On the Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres, which was seen as heresy by the church.
Sponsored content

What is Printing Press ? - Page 12 Empty Re: What is Printing Press ?

Back to top
Permissions in this forum:
You cannot reply to topics in this forum