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Aditya992000
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What is Printing Press ? - Page 2 Empty Re: What is Printing Press ?

on Tue Jan 15, 2019 6:53 pm
Woodcut printing has been done for several centuries. That was whole pages cut into wood, words and pictures. In the 15th century Johannes Gutenberg improved the process. He used separate alloy letters screwed into a frame
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Dhruv singhaniya
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on Tue Jan 15, 2019 6:53 pm
The operation of a press became synonymous with the enterprise of printing, and lent its name to a new medium of expression and communication, "the press"
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Dhruv singhaniya
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on Tue Jan 15, 2019 6:53 pm
In Renaissance Europe, the arrival of mechanical movable type printing introduced the era of mass communication, which permanently altered the structure of society. The relatively unrestricted circulation of information and (revolutionary) ideas transcended borders, captured the masses in the Reformation and threatened the power of political and religious authorities. The sharp increase in literacy broke the monopoly of the literate elite on education and learning and bolstered the emerging middle class.
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Aditya992000
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on Tue Jan 15, 2019 6:53 pm
This way a large set of letters could make almost any page for printing. This process was called typesetting. Each letter was in a block of metal, fixed in a frame. He could then move paper and ink over it, much like a stamp. This method was called letterpress.
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Dhruv singhaniya
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on Tue Jan 15, 2019 6:53 pm
Across Europe, the increasing cultural self-awareness of its peoples led to the rise of proto-nationalism, and accelerated by the development of European vernacular languages, to the detriment of Latin's status as lingua franca
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Aditya992000
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What is Printing Press ? - Page 2 Empty Re: What is Printing Press ?

on Tue Jan 15, 2019 6:54 pm
Bigger and much faster presses were invented in the industrial revolution. The main improvements were made in the 19th century.
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Dhruv singhaniya
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on Tue Jan 15, 2019 6:54 pm
In the 19th century, the replacement of the hand-operated Gutenberg-style press by steam-powered rotary presses allowed printing on an industrial scale
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Aditya992000
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on Tue Jan 15, 2019 6:54 pm
Two ideas altered the design of the printing press entirely. First was the use of steam power to run the machinery. Second was the replacement of the printing flatbed with the rotary motion of cylinders.
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Aditya992000
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on Tue Jan 15, 2019 6:54 pm
Both were done by the German printer Friedrich Koenig between 1802 and 1818. Having moved to London in 1804, Koenig got financial support for his project in 1807. In 1810, Koenig patented a steam press "much like a hand press connected to a steam engine".
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Dhruv singhaniya
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on Tue Jan 15, 2019 6:54 pm
The rapid economic and socio-cultural development of late medieval society in Europe created favorable intellectual and technological conditions for Gutenberg's improved version of the printing press: the entrepreneurial spirit of emerging capitalism increasingly made its impact on medieval modes of production, fostering economic thinking and improving the efficiency of traditional work-processes
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Aditya992000
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on Tue Jan 15, 2019 6:54 pm
Soon other inventions were added, such as the making of cheaper paper by using wood pulp instead of rags. Later in the 19th century came machines which speeded up typesetting, which was previously done by hand, letter by letter.
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Dhruv singhaniya
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on Tue Jan 15, 2019 6:54 pm
The sharp rise of medieval learning and literacy amongst the middle class led to an increased demand for books which the time-consuming hand-copying method fell far short of accommodating
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Aditya992000
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on Tue Jan 15, 2019 6:54 pm
A machine for hot metal typesetting was designed by Linotype Inc. It turned molten lead into type ready for printing.
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Dhruv singhaniya
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on Tue Jan 15, 2019 6:54 pm
Technologies preceding the press that led to the press's invention included: manufacturing of paper, development of ink, woodblock printing, and distribution of eyeglasses
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Dhruv singhaniya
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on Tue Jan 15, 2019 6:55 pm
At the same time, a number of medieval products and technological processes had reached a level of maturity which allowed their potential use for printing purposes. Gutenberg took up these far-flung strands, combined them into one complete and functioning system, and perfected the printing process through all its stages by adding a number of inventions and innovations of his own:
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Aditya992000
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on Tue Jan 15, 2019 6:55 pm
Many further developments in printing happened in the 20th century. Today printing presses are controlled by special-purpose computers, and the material to be printed is prepared on computers
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Dhruv singhaniya
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on Tue Jan 15, 2019 6:55 pm
The screw press which allowed direct pressure to be applied on flat-plane was already of great antiquity in Gutenberg's time and was used for a wide range of tasks
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Aditya992000
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on Tue Jan 15, 2019 6:55 pm
As a consequence of these inventions, the cost of printing has fallen significantly compared to other commodities. Now the price of a book or magazine is less determined by its production, and more by other factors, such as marketing.
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Dhruv singhaniya
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on Tue Jan 15, 2019 6:55 pm
Introduced in the 1st century AD by the Romans, it was commonly employed in agricultural production for pressing wine grapes and (olive) oil fruit, both of which formed an integral part of the mediterranean and medieval diet.
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on Tue Jan 15, 2019 6:55 pm
The device was also used from very early on in urban contexts as a cloth press for printing patterns.
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on Tue Jan 15, 2019 6:55 pm
Gutenberg may have also been inspired by the paper presses which had spread through the German lands since the late 14th century and which worked on the same mechanical principles
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Aditya992000
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on Tue Jan 15, 2019 6:55 pm
The Diamond Sutra, a Buddhist book from Dunhuang, China, dating to around 868 A.D. during the Tang Dynasty, is said to be the oldest known printed book.
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on Tue Jan 15, 2019 6:56 pm
Gutenberg adopted the basic design, thereby mechanizing the printing process
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on Tue Jan 15, 2019 6:56 pm
The Diamond Sutra was created with a method known as block printing, which utilized panels of hand-carved wood blocks in reverse.
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What is Printing Press ? - Page 2 Empty Re: What is Printing Press ?

on Tue Jan 15, 2019 6:56 pm
Printing, however, put a demand on the machine quite different from pressing. Gutenberg adapted the construction so that the pressing power exerted by the platen on the paper was now applied both evenly and with the required sudden elasticity.
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